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The development of Chinese machinery

Release date:2015-12-08 00:00 Source:http://www.queergnosis.com Views:

  Summer, western zhou dynasty, the ancient Chinese metal smelting casting machinery technology invention time earlier, and skilled. Such as chow simple bold ancient dynasty, during the spring and autumn period of ancient bronze fine exquisite, formed in ancient China. Unique style of bronze ware. Have discovered the earliest bronze ware in China, such as ma's kiln unearthed from gansu dongxiang copper knife, it has a history of 4800 years or so. About 40 ~ 500000 years ago, in China have been processing crude scraper, chopping and three prismatic tip shape primitive tools such as. 4 to 50000 years ago in grinding technology, many of the stone has been relatively smooth, sharp blade is also relatively, and a single blade, double, convex, concave blade and blade round blade.

  A bow and arrow in China 28000 years ago, this is the first mechanical invention; During 8000 ~ 8000 b.c. A potter's wheel (ceramics with rotary table); Tools in about 6000 to 6000 b.c., in addition to the celts knives, and stone, stone spade, hoe Shi Lian, bone and bone their unit. Stone axes and knives have useful hard sand grinding and into the hole.

  And dynasty dynasty ago, successively appeared without the spokes Quan and all kinds of the spokes of the wheel; Has a delicate shells and the western zhou dynasty when the two rounds of car; The canoe and water transport tools such as early appeared on a raft. Late neolithic age, people have can form and NiFan casting rough tools and weapons. Shang Yin period, with the development of handicraft production and the improvement of technology, formed a brilliant bronze culture. Bronze metallurgy technology is highly developed, bronze casting SiMuWu square weighing 875 kilograms, the spring and autumn period bronze statue of yi plate castings has been very fine. During the spring and autumn to Wei Han period (770 BC - 265 AD) is a machine start and rapid development period in ancient China. Spring and autumn period, the iron and cast iron metallurgy technology; Blackheart malleable cast iron, white heart malleable cast iron and forging steel, accelerating the transition from a bronze to the iron age; After the spring and autumn period and the medium-term invented the lost wax casting method and low melting point alloy aluminothermic welding technology; During the warring states period and had cast stack and cable casting process; Stone-working of grey cast iron smelting, and the wall thickness of 3 ~ 5 mm thin wall castings. Cast iron heat treatment technology is also improved.

  The spring and autumn period and the warring states period: the spring and autumn period a crossbow, the crossbow machine control shooting has been more dexterous mechanical device. To the han dynasty, the crossbow machine machining precision and surface finish has reached a quite high level. Han crossbow a stone to ten eight kinds of specifications, such as the formation of these specifications show machinery manufacturing standards in han dynasty has been preliminary established. Crossbow left to work on board, the name of the blacksmith, grinder, etc. During the warring states period of the test work, is the oldest handicraft monographs, including manufacturing process of the wheel. Elasticity of the bow and arrow shot speed and flight stability of all to explore in detail. Han dynasty has three or four layers of all kinds of vessels and a large number of ship cabin. Some ships are equipped with a stern rudder and high efficiency of promoting tools OARS. Is in the western han dynasty incense burner structure is exquisite, no matter how rolling sphere incense burner, its center of hemispherical furnace can often keep horizontality.

  Qin and han dynasties: in 1980 unearthed qin shihuang's mausoleum here represents the foundry technology, metal processing and assembly process. After the eastern han dynasty the drum in the car and instruments. Remember in drum car has a reduction gear system, through the drum bracelets audio segmentation notify the mileage. The three ma made this work except with gear transmission, and automatic on-off device, a better technical and remember drum in the car. The invention of the automatic on-off device, the actuator gear train has developed to a degree.

  When the eastern han dynasty has different shapes and USES of gear and gear train. There is a lot of ratchet, others word gear. Especially in the case of astronomical instruments for more precision gear train. Zhang heng water transportation it made use of clepsydra isochronism, powered by a leaking through gear train make it constant speed rotation every day for a week. In 132 AD, zhang heng, had created the world's first seismometer, namely wind syndrome seismograph. Han dynasty textile and textile machinery and technological developments, twill machine has become a fairly complex textile machinery. To The Three Kingdoms period, ma from 50 (grouping of meridian heddle) 50 Nie (foot) and 60 in 60 Nie ghatpot machine such as 50 heald 12 Nie and 60 heald 12 Nie, improved the production efficiency. Ma has also created a new water overturned, can carry water in a row, and very high energy efficiency. Tractors have LiBi of han dynasty tools, to the effect of soil and broken soil, when the emperor zhao lived Lou has created three feet, one day can sow a hectares of land. During this period, large copper iron castings and large mechanical structure appeared in succession. Five dynasties when casting of cangzhou iron lion weighs about 40 tons, song dynasty wooden tower like three zhangs 5 feet high, two zhangs 1 foot wide.

  Machinery manufacturing development in tang dynasty, tang period has a higher level. Such as xi 'an tang dynasty unearthed silver box, inside hole and the concentricity is very small, cylindrical and lash mouth with tightness, thin knife, shows that the machining accuracy has reached a new level.

  In terms of transportation, manpower and hydraulic and have further development in technology. In qi zu chongzhi made on line in the so-called thousands of boats and 160 paddle boat of the thousands of southern dynasty liang xiao experienced three phases includeing literator, are human advance fast ships, northern and southern dynasties emerged vans. Tang Li Gao for transport improvements have played a role in the future. Hydraulic machinery also have new progress, the tang dynasty already TongChe, from human carry water for the development of hydraulic carry water. South end and create advanced water transfer at the end of the spinning wheel, three games, five jiggled (ingot) hand wheel was more advanced human spinning machine in the world at that time. Yuan dynasty Xue Jingshi by catalpa people legacy system is carpenter famous summarize experience, and a detailed account of textile machinery and vehicles at the time, is famous for the ancient wood machinery technical monograph and leave the world.

  Song yuan Ming and qing dynasties: astronomy and chronometric instruments has developed rapidly during this period. Northern song sung and Korean male etc made of wooden tower like Taiwan, with the operation of a variety of objects form spacetime. It is composed of hydraulic drive, which has a set of escapement. Water meter like represents when the height of the machinery manufacturing level, was the world's advanced chronometer. Yuan dynasty roller bearing are advanced mechanical device in the world at that time. Ming of the shipbuilding industry has been great progress. Zheng's fleet was the largest fleet in the world. Zheng he's treasure that is multiplied the captain about 137 meters, sails 12, rudder 11 meters long, is the largest ocean in the ancient ship. At the time of mechanical manufacturing mainly still rely on manual operation. Predators -- with anchor, first is to rely on artificial forging into four PAWS, then in turn by welding. Outsiders such as pin with cold drawn wire, also made by hand.

  In the Ming dynasty for the piston bellows. It is the further development of Song Yuanmu fan, bellows automatic open/close valve and air powered by the piston pressure, become effective blast equipment metal metallurgy. Before the mid-ming period or slightly, defunct canteen-adding has been able to luff, and have the ability to do all the wind sail. Yangzhou wind turbines is to set sail type eight lug isometric device in the octagonal gallows, revolve around a vertical axis, and can automatically adjust the sails. This is the further development of ancient Chinese unique wooden boat sail. More use of it for a long time, China's coastal region to promote a rollover, to extract the sea salt drying system.

  Mechanical technology progress promoted the academic research. King of compiled and published in 1627 "the remote sich drawings recorded the most", this paper introduces the general situation of western mechanical engineering. From the west they table and also within a certain range, such as water spear. 1634 ~ 1637, Ming sung ying-hsing compiled and published the works to open ", recorded the original many advanced technology and science. It reflects the time of the agriculture and handicraft industry production technology level. Recorded a lot about mechanical manufacturing and product performance. Content involves mud kettle type casting, lost wax casting and casting foundry technology such as money, also describes the fateful anchor and soft hard sewing needle manufacturing method, jacquard and other textile machinery and transport and other various types of vehicle performance and specifications, etc. The characterized by open content is referred to as China in the 17th century craft encyclopedia.

  Qing qianlong palace building does have made big place more minutes, it relies on the netsuke gravity driven, and added a precise quote more institutions, processing fine, rich Chinese national characteristics. Ming and qing dynasties of China horological craftsmen created a lot of clocks and watches of novelty. At the time of guangzhou, suzhou, nanjing, yangzhou and so on, become a famous manufacturing city of clocks and watches.

  After the founding of new China, especially the past 30 years after the founding of new China, China's machinery science and technology development is very fast. To the large-scale machinery products, motors, automation and integration trend of development. In some areas has reached or exceeded the world advanced level.

  Small cement machinery

  Until the 1960 s, China small compaction machinery is very lack, many small sites of ramming basically using artificial ramming. In the early 1960 s, changsha construction machinery research institute in cooperation with Beijing institute of civil engineering and construction, etc, on the basis of mass technical innovation achievements summary invented the breaststroke ramming machine with Chinese characteristics, in 1962 won the national award for science and technology. The frog rammer structure is simple, maintenance, easy to use, quickly become the '60 s main products of the compaction machinery. According to incomplete statistics the frog rammer accumulative total output reached more than 50000 units, played an important role in China's economic construction. After 70 s, the frog rammer by more advanced performance gradually replaced with the vibrating impact ram and vibrating plate ram, the breaststroke ramming machine has very few, basic elimination.

  Processing machinery

  Casting: until the 1950 s, Beijing is in the light of the clay sand casting shape by hand. In 1955, Beijing first machine tool plant began using drip molding, double-sided model plate and steel plate and standard sand box model. In 1965, started using plastic model. In 1980, the Beijing municipal machinery research institute and Beijing malleable iron factory successfully developed power frequency coreless plug rod bottom note type thermal insulation pouring furnace. In 1982, the hospital and Beijing machine tool casting factory research success cupola tuyere oxygen blowing technology. From 1985 to 1988, Beijing machine tool research institute of floating end face seal ring experiment pressure casting process.

  Forging, forging: in 1959, Beijing second general machinery factory (later renamed Beijing heavy machinery works) built 2500 tons of hydraulic press. In 1971, the factory produced 6000 tons of hydraulic press, this is Beijing's largest forging equipment at that time. From 1968 to 1979, Beijing hoisting machinery works successively manufactured 300 tons 2000 tons of hydraulic press and hydraulic press out the crane arm and big cover element. In the 80 s, the Beijing mechanical and electrical institute and Beijing mold center developed a series of high precision of progressive blanking die, close to or achieve import mould level, change the Beijing fine blanking die dependent on imports.

  Heat treatment: 1949 years ago, Beijing has adopted on electricity, salt bath furnace, thermocouple parts annealing, tempering, quenching, normalizing, tempering, carburizing heat treatment, etc.


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